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Species: Pigs Therapeutic indication: Immunological veterinary medical products: For pigs Active ingredient: Gonadotrophin releasing factor (GnRF) analogue Product:Improvac® Solution for Injection Product index: Improvac Pig - meat: Zero days
Improvac is a clear, colourless to faintly coloured viscous solution for injection. Each 2 ml dose contains GnRF analogue-protein conjugate, minimum 300 μg. Also contains the non-mineral oil-based adjuvant diethylaminoethyl-dextran (300 mg) and the excipient chlorocresol (2.0 mg).
For use in male pigs (from 8 weeks of age) to induce antibodies against GnRF to produce a temporary immunological suppression of testicular function. For use as an alternative to physical castration for the reduction of boar taint caused by the key boar taint compound androstenone, in entire male pigs following the onset of puberty. Another key contributor to boar taint, skatole, may also be reduced as an indirect effect. Aggressive and sexual (mounting) behaviours are also reduced. The onset of immunity (induction of anti-GnRF antibodies) can be expected within 1 week following the second vaccination. Reduction of androstenone and skatole levels has been demonstrated from 4 to 6 weeks post second vaccination. This reflects the time needed for clearance of boar taint compounds already present at the time of vaccination as well as the variability of response between individual animals. Reduction of aggressive and sexual (mounting) behaviours can be expected from 1 to 2 weeks post second vaccination.
For subcutaneous use. Entire male pigs from 8 weeks of age onwards should be vaccinated with 2 doses of 2 ml at least 4 weeks apart, with the second dose given 4 to 6 weeks prior to slaughter. If slaughter is intended to be later than 10 weeks after the second dose a third dose should be given 4 to 6 weeks before the planned slaughter date. In case of suspected misdosing, the animal should be revaccinated immediately. Administer by subcutaneous injection in the neck, immediately behind the ear, using a safety vaccinator with a short needle to give 12 to 15 mm penetration. To avoid intramuscular deposition and lesions, it is recommended to use a shorter needle to give 5 mm to 9 mm penetration in undersized pigs and pigs younger than 16 weeks of age. Note that when using a safety vaccinator part of the needle will be covered by the needle guard and will not penetrate the pig. Depending on the type of safety vaccinator, pressure may also be put on the skin to push the needle a few millimetres deeper into the tissue. The circumstances should be taken into account when choosing an appropriate needle length. The needle should be directed perpendicular to the skin surface. Avoid introduction of contamination. Avoid injecting pigs that are wet and dirty.
Do not use in female pigs. Do not use in male pigs intended for breeding. Accidental injection of male breeding stock may affect subsequent fertility. Only healthy animals should be immunised. Improvac has been shown to be safe in male pigs from 8 weeks of age onwards. The recommended time for slaughter is 4 to 6 weeks after the second injection. If pigs cannot be slaughtered within this recommended period the available trial data support that pigs may still be sent for slaughter up to 10 weeks after the second injection with minimal risk of boar taint. An increasing proportion will return to normal function after this time. As skatole levels are not fully dependent on sexual status, both dietary and hygiene management procedures to reduce skatole levels are also important. When administered to pigs at the youngest recommended age (8 weeks), injection site swellings of up to 4 x 8 cm are very commonly observed. A gradual resolution of the local reactions occurs, but in 20-30% of the animals these may persist for more than 42 days. When administered to older pigs (14 - 23 weeks of age) injection site swellings ranging from 2 to 5 cm in diameter are commonly observed, and injection site reactions at slaughter are commonly observed if the second vaccination is given only 4 weeks before slaughter. A transient increase in rectal temperature (post-vaccination hyperthermia) of around 0.5°C may be observed during the 24 hour period post vaccination. In very rare cases, anaphylactoid type reactions (dyspnoea, collapse, cyanosis and hypersalivation associated with or without muscle twitching or emesis) have been observed within a few minutes after the first vaccination with duration up to 30 minutes. In a small number of animals, death occurred following the reaction, however most animals recovered without treatment and did not appear to react to subsequent vaccinations. Administration of a double dose of Improvac (4 ml) to 8 week old piglets very commonly resulted in palpable injection site reactions. The largest reactions were seen around 7 days post administration when the maximum size was 13 x 7 cm. By two weeks post administration the maximum size had decreased to 8 x 4 cm, showing a gradual resolution of the local reactions. A transient increase in body temperature of 0.2 to 1.7°C was observed during the 24 hours after administration, returning to normal after two days. The general health of the animals was not affected.
Accidental self-injection may produce similar effects in people to those seen in pigs. These may include a temporary reduction in sexual hormones and reproductive functions in both men and women and an adverse effect on pregnancy. The risk of these effects occurring is greater after a second or subsequent accidental injection than after a first injection. Special care should be taken to avoid accidental self-injection and needle stick injury when administering the product. The product must only be used with a safety vaccinator which has a dual safety system providing both a needle guard and a mechanism to prevent accidental operation of the trigger. The product must not be administered by pregnant women or those who may be pregnant. In case of eye contact, rinse immediately with copious amounts of water. In case of skin contact, wash immediately with soap and water.
In the event of accidental self-injection, wash the injury thoroughly with clean running water. Seek prompt medical advice and take the package leaflet with you. Do not administer the product in the future.
Accidental self-injection could temporarily affect reproductive physiology of both men and women and may adversely affect pregnancy. If self injection with Improvac is suspected, reproductive physiology should be monitored by assay of testosterone or oestrogen levels (as appropriate). The risk of a physiological effect is greater after a second or subsequent accidental injection than after a first injection. Clinically meaningful suppression of gonadal function should be managed with supportive endocrine replacement therapy until normal function returns. The patient should be advised not to administer Improvac and/or any other products with similar action in the future.
Store and transport refrigerated (+2°C to +8°C). Do not freeze. Protect from light. After first broaching with a sterile needle, the container may be returned to the refrigerator and then broached once more during the next 28 days, then discarded immediately after use. Do not mix with any other veterinary medicinal product. No information is available on the safety and efficacy of this vaccine when used with any other veterinary medicinal product. A decision to use this vaccine before or after any other veterinary medicinal product therefore needs to be made on a case by case basis. Any unused veterinary medicinal product or waste materials derived from such veterinary medicinal products should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements. For animal treatment only. Keep out of the reach and sight of children.
Legal category: POM-V
Polyethylene vials containing 20 ml (10 doses), 100 ml (50 doses) and 250 ml (125 doses). Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
Immunisation with Improvac induces an immune response against endogenous gonadotrophin releasing factor (GnRF), a factor that controls testicular function via the gonadotrophic hormones LH and FSH. The active ingredient in this immunological is a synthetically produced analogue of GnRF, which is conjugated with an immunogenic carrier protein. The conjugate is adjuvanted to increase the level and duration of effect. The effects of immunisation derive from the reduction in testicular function resulting from reduced GnRF activity. This leads to reduced production and concentration of testosterone and other testicular steroids, including androstenone, one of the main substances responsible for boar taint. A reduction of typical male behaviour such as mounting and aggressiveness when mixed with non-penmates can be expected after the second vaccination. Boars given an initial dose of Improvac are immunologically primed but retain their full testicular function until they receive the second dose, which induces a strong immune response to GnRF and causes temporary immunological suppression of testicular function. This directly controls the production of androstenone and, by removing the inhibitory effect of testicular steroids on hepatic metabolism, indirectly reduces levels of skatole. This effect is apparent within one week of treatment but it may take up to 3 weeks for any existing concentrations of boar taint compounds to be reduced to insignificant levels.
GTIN description:12 x 10 dose: GTIN:05013457085952
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